Attacks (Shomen uchi, Katate dori...) Priciples and throws (Ikkyo, Irimi nage...)
Body parts(Hara, Tegatana...) Ranks and Titles (Sensei, Sempai, Kohai...)
Counting (ichi, ni, san...) Techniques (Kumitachi, Jiju waza...)
Commands (Yoi, Rei...) The uniform (Gi, Hakama, Zori...)
Directions (Migi, Hidari, Jodan...) Miscellaneous aikido terms (Bokken ,Misogi...)
Postures (Kamae, Hanmi...) Katana parts (Tsuba, Saya, Kissaki...)


Atemi Strike to a vital point.
Choku-zuki Direct strike.
Gedan-zuki Downward punch.
Geri Kick.
Gyaku-uchi Any reverse strike.
Gyaku-zuki Punching with the rear hand.
Ippon-ken An one-knuckle fist.
Jodan-zuki Upper strike.
Kaeshi-zuki Counter thrust.
Katate-uchi One-handed strike.
Mae hiji ate Strike with an elbow forward.
Men-uchi Strike to head.
Mune-zuki Punch to the chest.
Oi-zuki A step-punch.
Shomen-uchi Overhead strike to the head.
Shomen-zuki Front strike, thrust.
Shudan-zuki A punch to the abdominal region.
Tettsui Hammer fist.
Uchi Inside; strike.
Yoko-uchi A sideward strike.
Yokomen-uchi Diagonal strike to the side of the head.
Zuki In Aikido, usually a Chudan Oi-zuki.


Dori Hold (grab).
Fudari-dori Simultaneous grab of the arms by two attackers.
Gyaku-dori To grasp with one's hand reversed; to grasp the opponents right wrist with your left hand.
Hiji-dori Elbow grab.
Kata-dori Shoulder hold.
Katate-dori One hand holding one hand.
Katatekosa-dori, Aihanmi katate-dori A grab with a same hand.
Kubi-dori Neck grab.
Morote-dori, Katate ryote-dori Two hands holding one hand.
Mune-dori One or two hand lapel hold.
Ryokata-dori Grabbing both shoulders.
Ryote-dori Two hands holding two hands.
Sode-dori Sleeve grab.
Ushiro eri-dori Neck grab from the back (usually the collar ).
Ushiro kubi shime Rear choke.
Ushiro ryokata-dori As above from the back.
Ushiro ryote-dori As above from the back.
Ushiro tekubi-dori Wrist grab from the back.

Abara The ribs.
Ago Jaw.
Akiresuken The tendons of the heel.
Ashi Leg.
Ashikubi Ankle.
Atama Head.
Chototsu Atemi point between the eyes.
Daitai The thigh.
Denko Atemi point at the floating ribs.
Dokko Pressure point behind the ear.
Empi The elbow.
Fukuto Atemi point just above inside of knee.
Ganmen The face.
Gekon Pressure point below lower lip.
Gokoku Pressure point in fleshy area between thumb and forefinger.
Haishu, Shuhai Back of the hand.
Haito Ridgehand.
Haiwan Back of forearm.
Hara Abdomen. One's center of mass, located about 2" below the navel. Traditionally this was thought to be the location of the spirit/mind (source of KI). Aikido techniques should be executed as much as possible from or through one's HARA.
Hiji Elbow.
Hiji-zume Atemi point on inside of elbow.
Hitai, Zengaku Forehead.
Hoho Cheek.
Jinchu Pressure point on upper lip below nose.
Jinkai-kyusho Vital points on the human body.
Jintai ,Shintai, Karada A body.
Juizo The kidney area.
Junchu Atemi point on the upper lip.
Kakato The heel of the foot.
Kakuto Back of the wrist (for a strike).
Kashi Legs.
Katate Forearm.
Keichu Atemi point on back of neck.
Kenkokotsu Shoulder blades.
Kikan Trachea.
Koko Area between thumb and forefinger.
Kokoro Heart.
Kote Wrist.
Kubi Neck.
Kubi-naka Atemi point at base of skull.
Kyusho Vital point on body.
Mata The thigh; the groin.
Men Head.
Mikazuki Atemi at corner of jaw.
Mimi Ears.
Morote Both hands.
Mukozune Atemi point in middle of shin.
Mune Chest.
Murasame Pressure points on each side of neck behind collar bone.
Naike Pressure point on inside of ankle.
Nukite Ends of stiffened fingers.
Seiken Front of fist.
Seikichu The spine.
Senaka The back of the body.
Shita hara Lower abdomen.
Sho Head.
Shomen Front of the head or part of the face between the eyes.
Shuto Edge of hand.
Sokei Groin.
Sokuso Tips of toes (for kicking).
Sokutei Bottom of heel.
Sokuto Edge of foot.
Tanden Abdomen.
Te-no-hira Palm of hand.
Te-ura Inside of wrist.
Teisho Heel of the hand.
Tekubi Wrist.
Tento Atemi point on top of head.
Ude The arm.
Uraken Back of fist.
Waki Side, armpit.
Wakikage Atemi point in armpit.
Yokomen Side of the head.
Yubi Finger.
Zenshin The entire body.
Zenwan Forearm.
1 Ichi one
2 Ni two
3 San three
4 Shi (or yon) four
5 Go five
6 Roku six
7 Shichi (or nana ) seven
8 Hachi eight
9 Kyu nine
10 Jyu ten
11 Jyu ich ten (and) one
12 Jyu ni ten (and) two
13 Jyu san ten (and) three
14 Jyu shi or Jyu yon ten (and) four etc.
36 San jyu roku 3 tens and 6
43 Yon jyu san 4 tens and 3
72 Nana jyu ni 7 tens and 2
99 Kyu jyu kyu 9 tens and 9
100 Hyaku one hundred
1000 Sen one thousand
10 000 Man ten thousand
101 Hyaku ichi hundred (and) one
201 Ni hyaku ichi two hundred (and) one
546 Go hyaku yon jyu roku five hundred (and) four tens (and) six
3427 San zen yon hyaku ni jyu nana (or shichi) note that "sen" becomes "zen" after a voiced consonant line "n".
33 456 San man san zen yon hyaku go jyu roku  
  Some anomalies:

Use "shi" for "four" only in the single digit column.So, you can use "shi" or "yon" in 3654, but use "yon"for 40, 400, 4000, etc.

Use "shichi" for "seven" only in the single digit column. So, you can use "shichi" or "nana" in 9607,but use "nana" for 70, 700, 7000, etc.

600 = "roppyaku" (not "rokyu hyaku")

800 = "happyaku" (not "hachi hyaku")

8000 = "hassen" (not "hachi sen")

Ato Move back.
Arigato Thank you (informal).
Domo Thanks (informal).
Domo Arigato Thank you (formal).
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita Japanese for "thank you very much." At the end of each class, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with whom you've trained.
Dozo Please go ahead.
Gomen nasai Excuse me, I'm sorry.
Hai Yes.
Hajime Start.
Hayaku Quickly.
Iie No.
Irashaimasu Welcome.
Joseki ni rei Bow to the high section of the dojo.
Kamiza ni rei Bow to kamiza (gods).
Kiritsu Stand up.
Kiyotsukete Be careful.
Koutai Change.
Mate Wait.
Mawatte Turn around.
Mokuso Close the eyes, meditation.
Onegaishimasu "I welcome you to train with me," or literally, "I make a request." This is said to one's partner when initiating practice.
Otagai ni rei Bow to each other.
Rei Bow; greet.
Sempai ni rei Bow to the sempai.
Sensei ni rei Bow to the sensei.
Shinzen ni rei Bow to the shrine.
Shomen ni rei Bow to the shomen.
Sumimasen Excuse me (to attract attention).
Suwatte Sit down.
Tatte Raise.
Wakarimasu I understand.
Arigato Thank you (informal).
Domo Thanks (informal).
Domo Arigato Thank you (formal).
Domo Arigato Gozaimashita Japanese for "Thank you very much." At the end of each class, it is proper to bow and thank the instructor and those with whom you've trained.
Dozo Please go ahead.
Gomen nasai Excuse me, I'm sorry.
Hai Yes.
Iie No.
Irashaimasu Welcome.
Onegaishimasu "I welcome you to train with me" or literally, "I make a request to you." This is said to one's partner when initiating practice.
Sumimasen Excuse me (to attract attention).
Wakarimasu I understand.

Asoko Over there.
Gyaku Reverse, opposite, inverted.
Hantai The other way around.
Hantai-ni In the opposite direction.
Happo The eight sides; in all directions.
Heiko Parallel.
Hidari Left.
Ichimonji, Shokusen A straight line.
Kiku Lower.
Komi Coming close or drawing near.
Mae Forward.
Massugu Straight ahead.
Migi Right.
Naka Center.
Naka-ni To the center.
Naname Diagonal.
Omote Front.
Otoshi Dropping.
Shintai Rectilinear movement.
Shokkaku Right angles.
Shomen Straight ahead.
Soko There, that position.
Soto Outside.
Uchi Inside.
Ue Up.
Ura "Rear." A class of aikido techniques executed by moving behind the attacker and turning. Sometimes URA techniques are called TENKAN (turning) techniques.
Ushiro Rearward, behind.
Yoko Horizontal, to the side.
Zenpo Front.

Ai hanmi Mutual stance (both partners have the same foot forward).
Dza Sitting.
Gedan Lower position. GEDAN NO KAMAE is thus a stance with the hands or a weapon held in a lower position.
Gyaku hanmi Opposing stance (both partners have the opposite foot forward).
Handachi Knee position; half standing.
Hanmi Half forward stance.
Hasso no Kamae "Figure-eight" stance.In HASSO NO KAMAE, the sword is held up beside one's head, so that the elbows spread down and out from the sword.
Hitoemi Equal stance, feet parallel forward.
Iai goshi Hips lowered, stable position.
Iai hiza,Tate hiza Kneeling on one calf.
Jodan Upper position. JODAN NO KAMAE is thus a stance with the hands or a weapon held in a high position.
Kamae Posture, stance.
Karuma Like waki gamae, blade horizontal.
Kasumi Arms crossed over to hide technique (mountain mist).
Kiza Kneeling, but up on the toes.
Kongo Blade vertical in front of face.
Sankakutai A defensive position, the feet are at right angles.
Seigan Natural step, fundamental kamae.
Seiza Kneeling on both calves.
Shizentai A natural way of standing in which the feet and shoulders are in one line.
Shudan Middle kamae, sword in middle.
Tachi Standing.
Tagi Sitting position.
Waki gamae
Sword pointed down and back, for a sutemi (sacrifice) waza. Usually sword on right side (migi waki gamae), left foot forward. Other purpose - hiding length of sword, especially in case of a broken one.

Ikkyo 1. principle = oshi taoshi, ude osae.
Nikyo 2. principle = kote mawashi, kotemaki.
Sankyo 3. principle = kote hineri, shibori-kime.
Yonkyo 4. principle = tekubi osae.
Gokyo 5. principle = kuji-osae.
Rokyo 6. principle = hiji kime osae.
Nanakyo 7. principle = yonkyo applied at the back of the wrist.
Hakyo 8. principle = nikyo (modified).
Kukyo 9. principle = inverted nikyo.
Hiji garami Pinning technique by pressing the elbow.
Osae Pinning, immobilizing.
Aiki otoshi Entering more deeply and picking up uke's off-side leg.
Ganseki otoshi Arm bar with elbow braced over shoulder.
Irimi nage Entering throw.
Juji nage, Juji garami
Arm entwining throw ("No. 10 throw", since the arms form the japanese sign for 10 "+". arms crossed, elbows locked).
Kaiten nage Rotary throw. Uchi-kaiten nage and soto-kaiten nage (inside and outside).
Kata gatame A version of kaiten nage in wich the shoulder is locked.
Kokyu dosa Breath-power movement (from seiza).
Kokyu ho Morotetori kokyu nage or ryotemochi kokynage ude-oroshi irimi.
Kokyu nage Breath throw (there are a zillion of these in aikido). Most of them just variations of the basic techniques.
Koshi nage Hip throw.
Kote gaeshi Wrist turn-out.
Maki otoshi Nage ends up down on one knee, having thrown uke over nage's shoulder.
Otoshi Throwing down.
Shiho nage Four direction throw.
Sumi otoshi Corner drop.
Suni gaeshi Corner throw.
Tenchi nage Heaven and earth throw.
Ushiro udoroshi Pull down from behind.
Dan More advanced grades, from 1 to 10: shodan; nidan, sandan, yondan, godan, rokudan, nanadan, hachidan, kudan, judan.
Dojo-cho "Leader" of a dojo.
Doshu Head of the way (currently Moriteru Ueshiba).
Fukushidoin A formal title whose connotation is something approximating "assistant instructor."
Kaicho "Owner" of school (organization) eg. Sei Do Kai.
Kaiso A title. The founder of aikido (i.e., Morihei Ueshiba).
Kancho "Owner" of school (building, hall) eg. Yugen Kan.
Kohai Junior student.
Kyu Student grade, from 7 up to 1 kyu; nanakyu, rokyu, gokyu, yonkyu, sankyu, nikkyu, ikkyu.
Mudansha Members with kyu grades.
O'Sensei Great Teacher (Ueshiba, Morihei).
Sempai Senior student.
Sensei Teacher.
Shidoin A formal title meaning, approximately, "instructor."
Shihan A formal title meaning, approximately, "master instructor." A "teacher of teachers."
Soke Head of style (actually head of family, unifier of gods and lineage).
Uchi Deshi A live-in student. A student who lives in a dojo and devotes him/herself both to training and to the maintenence of the dojo (and sometimes to personal service to the SENSEI of the dojo).
Vaka sensei A young master.It isn't used until the senior master is alive.
Yudansha Members with dan grades.

Ashi waza Throwing by using the leg.
Atemi waza Techniques to strike a vital point.


Take, catch, attack.
Hanashi waza Techniques from escaping from holds; also known as hazushi-waza.
Hanmi-handachi waza One person standing, one person sitting techniques.
Henka waza Varied technique. Especially beginning one technique and changing to another in mid-execution.
Hitori waza "Invisible partner practice".
Jiu waza Free-style practice of techniques. Usually a set of attacks or techniques. It is different from Randori where everything is allowed.
Jo-dori Taking of Jo.
Jo-nage Throwing technique by using Jo.
Kaeshi waza Counter techniques.
Kansetsu waza Joint locking techniques.
Katame waza Grappling techniques; consisting of osae waza, kensetsu waza, and shime waza.
Kihon waza Fundamental techniques.
Kumijo Staff partnership practice.
Kumitachi Sword partnership practice.
Nagashi waza Flowing from one technique to next.
Ne waza Grappling techniques (a technique in semi-lying or lying position).
Oji waza To block and then counterattack.
Omote waza Techniques that are revealed to the public.
Osae waza Pinning techniques.
Rendzoku waza A series of techniques.
Renraku waza The art of combining techniques.
Shi waza A counter technique.
Sukashi waza Techniques performed without allowing the attacker to complete a grab or to initiate a strike.
Sutemi waza A technique accomplished by sacrificing your body.
Suwari waza Techniques executed with both uke and nage in a seated position.
Tachi dori Sword takeaways.
Tachi waza Standing techniques.
Tanto dori Knife takeaways.
Te waza Hand techniques (as opposed to weapons).
Uchi waza Striking techniques.
Uke waza Blocking techniques.
Ushiro waza Techniques from rear attacks.
Waza Techniques.

Embu gi Demonstration top/uniform.
Eri Lapel, collar.
Hakama Divided skirt usually worn by black-belt ranks. In some DOJO, the HAKAMA is also worn by women of all ranks, and in some DOJO by all practitioners.
Hera Peg in back of hakama.
Keiko gi, Do gi, Gi Practice uniform.
Kesa Lapel/part of monk's costume hanging from left shoulder.
Koshiita Back plate on hakama.
Matadachi Split in side of hakama.
Mon Family crests on uniform.
Montsuki Wide sleaved top with mon on chest, sleeve and back.
Obi Belt.
Sode Sleeve, on practice top.
Tabi Japanese sock-slippers used in dojo.
Tanomo Large sleeves on formal tops.
Tenugui Small hand cloth to wipe face. Also worn under the helmet in kendo.
Uwa gi Practice top.
Zekken Chest patch embroidered with own name and dojo name.
Zori Japanese sandals for use outside dojo. Sandals worn off the mat to help keep the mat clean!
Term Definition
Agatsu "Self victory." According to the founder, true victory (MASAKATSU) is the victory one achieves over oneself (AGATSU). Thus one of the founder's "slogans" was MASAKATSU AGATSU -- "The true victory of self-mastery."
Ai nuke "Mutual escape." An outcome of a duel where each participant escapes harm. This corresponds to the ideal of aikido according to which a conflict is resolved without injury to any party involved.
Ai uchi "Mutual kill." An outcome of a duel where each participant kills the other. In classical Japanese swordmanship, practitioners were often encouraged to enter a duel with the goal of achieving at least an AI UCHI. The resolution to win the duel even at the cost of one's own life was thought to aid in cultivating an attitude of single-minded focus on the task of cutting down one's opponent. This single-minded focus is exemplified in aikido in the technique, IKKYO, where one enters into an attacker's range in order to effect the technique.
Aiki Blending with the power of the Universal energy, the power of live, blending with the spirit of life, blending the positive and negative Ki.
Aiki jutsu

Martial art, first version of aikido.

Aiki okami The Great Spirit of Aiki (Harmony).
Aiki taiso Exercises for coordination between body and mind.
Aikido The word "aikido" is made up of three Japanese characters: AI - harmony, KI - spirit, mind, or universal energy, DO - the Way. Thus aikido is "the Way of Harmony with Universal Energy." However, AIKI may also be interpreted as "accommodation to circumstances." This latter interpretation is somewhat non- standard, but it avoids certain undesirable metaphysical commitments and also epitomizes quite well both the physical and psychological facets of aikido.
Aikidoka A practitioner of aikido.
Aikikai "Aiki association." A term used to designate the organization created by the founder for the dissemination of aikido.
Ashi sabaki Footwork. Proper footwork is essential in aikido for developing strong balance and for facilitating ease of movement.
Ayumi Walking.
Ayumi ashi Altering steps, left and right, like normal walking.
Bodai shin The awakened or enlightened mind.
Bokken or bokuto
Wooden sword. Many aikido movements are derived from traditional Japanese fencing. In advanced practice, weapons such as the BOKKEN are used in learning subtleties of certain movements, the relationships obtaining between armed and unarmed techniques, defenses against weapons, and the like.
Budo "Martial way." The Japanese character for "BU" (martial) is derived from characters meaning "stop" and (a weapon like a) "halberd." In conjunction,then, "BU" may have the connotation "to stop the halberd." In aikido, there is an assumption that the best way to prevent violent conflict is to emphasize the cultivation of individual character. The way (DO) of AIKI is thus equivalent to the way of BU, taken in this sense of preventing or avoiding violence so far as possible.
Budoka One who practises Budo.
Bugeisha Master of martial arts.
Bushi Warrior.
Bushi-wa Ancient Japanese term for harmony, chord and coordination.
Chikara Force, strenght.
Chikara-no dashikata Spreading of the power, flowing out.
Chinkon kishin Calming the spirit and returning to state of enlightenment.
Chokusen Direct. Thus CHOKUSEN NO IRIMI = direct entry.
Do Way/path. The Japanese character for "DO" is the same as the Chinese character for Tao (as in "Taoism"). In aikido, the connotation is that of a way of attaining enlightenment or a way of improving one's character through aiki.
Do kiyo Teaching the way.
Dojo Literally "place of the Way", also "place of enlightenment" where Zen meditation and martial arts are practised.
Dosa Exercises.
Dza rei Bow in seiza.
Dza-ho Exercises in a sitting position.
Dzempo kaiten ukemi Falling in a forward roll.
Fudakake The board with the names in the dojo.
Fudari Two people.
Fudo Immovable.
Fudo shin "Immovable mind". A state of mental equanimity or imperturbability. The mind, in this state, is calm and undistracted (metaphorically, therefore, "immovable"). FUDO MYO is a Buddhist guardian deity who carries a sword in one hand (to destroy enemies of the Buddhist doctrine), and a rope in the other (to rescue sentient beings from the pit of delusion, or from Buddhist hell-states). He therefore embodies the two-fold Buddhist ideal of wisdom (the sword) and compassion (the rope). To cultivate FUDO SHIN is thus to cultivate a mind which can accomodate itself to changing circumstances without compromise of ethical principles.
Funekogi undo Rowing movement with the arms.
Furi kaburi Sword-raising movement. This movement is found especially in IKKYO, IRIMI-NAGE, and SHIHO-NAGE.
Gaeshi (kaeshi) Reversed, returning.
Gaku Caligraphy put up on the walls of the dojo.
Giri The concept of honour in Bushi-do.
Go-no sen Initiating before the attack begins.
Goshin-jutsu Self-defence.
Haishin Bending.
Haishin undo Exercise for bending backward.
Hapo undo Eight directions exercise.
Haragei The art of working with Hara.
Hei-ho Becoming one with nature, a concept in the philosophy of martial arts.
Henka Movement, change.
Hineri Twist, bend.
Hisatsu Defeat the opponent with the first strike.
Hishiriyo To think without a thought; mind beyond thinking.
Ho Exercise.
Hombu dojo A term referring to the central dojo of the organisation. The headquarters of Aikikai organisation (see Aikikai).
Ibuki A kind of deep breathing.
Irimi Entering.
Isshin den shin From my soul to your soul; directly, silently. A way of transmitting knowledge from teacher to student.
Jinja A (shinto) shrine. There is an AIKI JINJA located in Iwama, Ibaraki prefecture, Japan.
Jo Wooden staff about 4'-5' (127 cm) in length. The JO originated as a walking stick. It is unclear how it became incorporated into aikido. Many JO movements come from traditional Japanese spear- fighting, others may have come from jo-jutsu, but many seem to have been innovated by the founder. The JO is usually used in advanced practice.
Jo-jutsu The art of the fight with short staff.
Jodza Another name of Kamiza.
Ju Flexibility.
Kai Organization.
Kaiten Rotating, revolving.
Kakarai geiko Group practice.
Kamae A posture or stance either with or without a weapon. KAMAE may also connote proper distance (MA AI) with respect to one's partner. Although "KAMAE" generally refers to a physical stance, there is an important prallel in aikido between one's physical and one's psychological bearing. Adopting a strong physical stance helps to promote the correlative adoption of a strong psychological attitude. It is important to try so far as possible to maintain a positive and strong mental bearing in aikido.
Kami A divinity, living force, or spirit. According to SHINTO, the natural world is full of KAMI, which are often sensitive or responsive to the actions of human beings.

Kamidana A place in the dojo with famous quotes, sentences (writings).
Kamiza A small shrine, especially in an aikido, generally located the the front of the dojo, and often housing a picture of the founder, or some calligraphy. One generally bows in the direction of the KAMIZA when entering or leaving the dojo, or the mat.
Kan geiko Training in the coldest weather in winter.
Kara Empty.
Kata A "form" or prescribed pattern of movement, especially with the JO in aikido.
Katame Methods of pinning.
Katana What is vulgarly called a "samurai sword."
Katsu jinken "The sword that saves life." As Japanese swordsmanship became more and more influenced by Buddhism (especially Zen Buddhism) and Taoism,practitioners became increasingly interested in incorporating ethical principles into their discipline. The consumate master of sworsmanship, according to some such practitioners, should be able not only to use the sword to kill, but also to save life. The concept of KATSU JIN KEN found some explicit application in the development of techniques which would use non-cutting parts of the sword to strike or control one's opponent, rather than to kill him/her. The influence of some of these techniques can sometimes be seen in aikido. Other techniques were developed by which an unarmed person (or a person unwilling to draw a weapon) could disarm an attacker. These techniques are frequently practiced in aikido (see SETSU NIN TO).
Keiko Training. The only secret to success in aikido.
Ken Sword.
Kensho Enlightenment (see MOKUSO and SATORI).
Kesa kiri (giri) A diagonal cutting with a sword.
Ki Vital energy.Spiritual energy."The spirit" is Shin, not Ki.The body follows Ki and Ki follows Shin. It is important to know that in the Eastern tradition Shin is the psychological factor, Ki is the psycho-physical and physical force is the physical factor. Ki is the invisible activity filled with the energy of the Universe and it turns into material energy in every cell of our body.
Ki gai yuku The energy has disappeared.
Ki musubi KI NO MUSUBI = Literally "knotting/tying-up KI". The act/process of matching one's partner's movement/intention at its inception, and maintaining a connection to one's partner throughout the application of an aikido technique. Proper KI MUSUBI requires a mind that is clear, flexible and attentive (see SETSUZOKU).
Ki no nagare Flow of the spirit (vital force).
Kiai A shout delivered for the purpose of focussing all of one's energy into a single movement. Even when audible KIAI are absent, one should try to preserve the feeling of KIAI at certain crucial points within aikido techniques.

Harmony which must be established between the actions of Uke and Tori.

Kihon (Something which is) fundamental. There are often many seemingly very different ways of performing the same technique in aikido. To see beneath the surface features of the technique and grasp the core common is to comprehend the KIHON.
Kime Focusing, concentration.
Kimeru To make a decisive hold.
Kinhin Special walk made between two periods of Dza dzen meditation.
Kiri otoshi Cutting downwards.
Kiri-no tsunami "Ki" like a wave.
Kogeki-ho Ways of attacking.
Kokyu Breath. Part of aikido is the development of "KOKYU RYOKU", or "breath power." This is the coordination of breath with movement. A prosaic example: When lifting a heavy object, it is generally easier when breathing out. Also breath control may facilitate greater concentration and the elimination of stress. In many traditional forms of meditation, focus on the breath is used as a method for developing heightened concentration or mental equanimity. This is also the case in aikido. A number of exercises in aikido are called "KOKYU HO," or "breath exercises." These exercises are meant to help one develop KOKYU RYOKU.
Kokyu go au Achieving harmony between your own breathing and the one of your opponent.
Kokyu ryoku Power of breath force, force of breath.
Kokyu ryoku yosei-ho Accumulating and spreading all the human energy.
Kokyu tenkan-ho Turning of the breath power.
Kokyu-no henka Breath movement, breath force.
Kokyu-ryoku-no yoshei-ho Exercise for the strength of the breath power.
Kote gaeshi-ho Exercise for turning the wrist outward.
Kote mawashi-ho Exercise for turning the wrist inward.
Kotodama A practice of intoning various sounds (phonetic components of the Japanese language) for the purpose of producing mystical states. The founder of aikido was greatly interested in Shinto and Neo-shinto mystical practices, and he incorporated a number of them into his personal aikido practice.
Ku Emptiness. According to Buddhism, the fundamental character of things is absence (or emptiness) of individual unchanging essences. The realization of the essencelessness of things is what permits the cultivation of psychological non-attachment, and thus cognitive equanimity. The direct realization of (or experience of insight into) emptiness is enlightenment.This shows up in aikido in the ideal of developing a state of cognitive openness, permiting one to respond immediately and intuitively to changing circumstances (see MOKUSO).
Kuden Oral guidance, instructions.
Kuzushi The principle of destroying one's partner's balance. In aikido, a technique cannot be properly applied unless one first unbalances one's partner. To achieve proper KUZUSHI, in aikido, one should rely primarily on position and timing, rather than merely on physical force.
Ma ai Proper distancing or timing with respect to one's partner. Since aikido techniques always vary according to circumstances, it is important to understand how differences in initial position affect the timing and application of techniques.
Masakatsu "True victory" (see AGATSU).
Mawashi Revolving, turning.
Meiso-ho Exercise for meditation.
Midzu-no kokoro "Mind like water", clear mind, something that is trained in martial arts.
Misogi Ritual purification. Aikido training may be looked upon as a means of purifying oneself; eliminating defiling characteristics from one's mind or personality. Although there are some specific exercises for MISOGI practice, such as breathing exercises, in point of fact, every aspect of aikido training may be looked upon as MISOGI. This, however, is a matter of one's attitude or approach to training, rather than an objective feature of the training itself.
Mokuso Meditation. Practice often begins or ends with a brief period of meditation.The purpose of meditation is to clear one's mind and to develop cognitive equanimity. Perhaps more importantly, meditation is an opportunity to become aware of conditioned patterns of thought and behavior so that such patterns can be modified, eliminated or more efficiently put to use. In addition, meditation may occasion experiences of insight into various aspects of aikido (or, if one accepts certain buddhist claims, into the very structure of reality). Ideally, the sort of cognitive awareness and focus that one cultivates in meditation should carry over into the rest of one's practice, so that the distinction between the "meditative mind" and the "normal mind" collapses.
Mondo-mon Mon-questions, do-answers, exchanged between a teacher and a student.
Mushin Literally "no mind". A state of cognitive awareness characterized by the absence of discursive thought. A state of mind in which the mind acts/reacts without hypostatization of concepts. MUSHIN is often erroneously taken to be a state of mere spontaneity. Although spontaneity is a feature of MUSHIN, it is not straightforwardly identical with it. It might be said that when in a state of MUSHIN, one is free to use concepts and distinctions without being used by them.
Mushin-no kokoro Concentration.
Mushotoku With no desire of profit or benefit.
Musubi The creative power of existence, unity; blending with the attacker.
Nagare Flowing. One goal of aikido practice is to learn not to oppose physical force with physical force. Rather, one strives to flow along with physical force,redirecting it to one's advantage.
Nage The student who is attacked by Uke and applies aikido techniques for protection.
Omotokyo One of the so-called "new-religions" of Japan. OMOTOKYO is a syncretic amalgam of Shintoism, Neo-Shinto mysticism, Christianity, and Japanese folk religion. The founder of aikido was a devotee of OMOTOKYO, and incorporated some elements from it into his aikido practice. The founder insisted, however, that one need not be a devotee of OMOTOKYO in order to study aikido or to comprehend aikido's purpose.
Orenaite The unbendable arm.
Randori Free-style "all-out" training. Sometimes used as a synonym for JIYU WAZA.Although aikido techniques are usually practiced with a single partner, it is important to keep in mind the possibility that one may be attacked by multiple aggressors. Many of the body movements of aikido (TAI SABAKI) are meant to facilitate defense against multiple attackers.
Reigi Ettiquette. Observance of proper ettiquette at all times (but especially observance of proper DOJO ettiquette) is as much a part of one's training as the practice of techniques. Observation of ettiquette indicates one's sincerety, one's willingness to learn, and one's recognition of the rights and interests of others.
Renzoku Continuous.
Renzoku tenkan-ho Series of turning the body.
Ri Principle.
Rippo Exercise in a standing position.
Ritsurei Bow from a standing position.
Ryu School.
Sabaki Movement.
Satori Enlightenment. In Buddhism, enlightenment is characterized by a direct realization or apprehension of the absence of unchanging essences behind phenomena. Rather, phenomena are seen to be empty of such essences -- phenomena exist in thoroughgoing interdependence (ENGI). As characterized by the founder of aikido, enlightenment consists in realizing a fundamental unity between oneself and the (principles governing) the universe. The most important ethical principle the aikidoist should gain insight into is that one should cultivate a spirit of loving protection for all things (see KU and SHINNYO).
Seiko tanden The body center.
Setsuzoku Connection, sequence of movements.
Shi sei Shape and strenght of the posture.
Shiho giri Cutting in four directions.
Shikaku Literally "dead angle." A position relative to one's partner where it is difficult for him/her to (continue to) attack, and from which it is relatively easy to control one's partner's balance and movement. The first phase of an aikido technique is often to establish SHIKAKU.
Shikko Samurai walking ("knee walking"). Shikko is very important for developing a strong awareness of one's center of mass (HARA). It also develops strength in one's hips and legs.
Shin Mind, spirit.
Shinken shobu A duel of life and death.
Shinnyo "Thusness" or "suchness." A term commonly used in Buddhist philosophy (and especially in Zen Buddhism) to denote the character of things as they are experienced without filtering the experiences through an overt conceptual framework. There is some question whether "pure" uninterpreted experience (independent of all conceptualization/categorization) is possible given the neurological/cognitive makeup of human beings. However, SHINNYO can also be taken to signify experience of things as empty of individual essences (see "KU").
Shinto "The way of the gods." The indigenous religion of Japan. The founder of aikido was deeply influenced by OMOTOKYO, a religion largely grounded in SHINTO mysticism. (see KAMI).
Shojin The first period of training.
Shugio Daily intensive training which is leading to enlightenment and purification.
Sochu geiko Training in the hottest days in summer.
Sotai dosa Exercises for two people.
Suburi Basic JO or BOKKEN practice in striking and thrusting.
Sucho ryoki The skill to concentrate the energy Ki, obtained by breathing on one point or a particular part of the body.
Suki An opening or gap where one is vulnerable to attack or application of a technique, or where one's technique is otherwise flawed. SUKI may be either physical or psychological. One goal of training is to be sensitive to SUKI within one's own movement or position, as well as to detect SUKI in the movement or position of one's partner. Ideally, a master of aikido will have developed his/her skill to such an extent that he/she no longer has any true SUKI.
Sumi Angle.
Suriashi Sliding.
Sutemi Literally "to throw-away the body." The attitude of abandoning oneself to the execution of a technique (in judo, a class of techniques where one sacrifices one's own balance/position in order to throw one's partner) (See AI UCHI).
Tachi A type of Japanese sword (thus TACHI-TORI = sword-taking). (Also "standing position").
Tachi rei Bow from standing position.
Tai jutsu "Body arts," i.e., unarmed practice.
Tai sabaki Body movement.
Tai-no henko TAI NO TENKAN = Basic blending practice involving turning 180 degrees.
Tai-no shintai Uninterrupted movement.
Takemusu aiki A "slogan" of the founder's meaning "infinitely generative martial art of aiki."Thus, a synonym for aikido. The scope of aikido is not limited only to the standard, named techniques one studies regularly in practice. Rather, these standard techniques serve as repositories of more fundamental principles (KIHON). Once one has internalized the KIHON, it is possible to generate a virtually infinite variety of new aikido techniques in accordance with novel conditions.
Tandoku dosa Individual exercises.
Taninsugake Training against multiple attackers, usually from grabbing attacks.
Tanto A dagger.
Tegatana "Hand sword", i.e.the edge of the hand.Many aikido movements emphasize extension and aligment "through" one's tegatana.Also, there are important similarities obtaining between aikido sword techniques, and the principles of tegatana application.
Tekubi furi undo, Tekubi shindo Shaking of the wrists.
Tekubi kansetsu junan-ho Wrist joint exercise.
Tenkan Turning movement, esp. turning the body 180 degrees (see TAI NO TENKAN).
Tenshin A movement where NAGE retreats 45 degrees away from the attack ( UKE's open side).
Tsugi ashi Sliding walk.
Ude furi choyaku undo Swinging of the arms with turning.
Ude furi undo Swinging of the arms.
Ueshiba Kisshomaru The son of the founder of aikido.
Ueshiba Morihei The founder of aikido (see O-SENSEI).
Ueshiba Moriteru The grandson of the founder.
Uke Person being thrown (receiving the technique). At high levels of practice, the distinction between UKE and NAGE becomes blurred. In part, this is because it becomes unclear who initiates the technique, and also because, from a certain perspective, UKE and NAGE are thoroughly interdependent.
Ukemi Literally "receiving [with/through] the body," thus, the art of falling in response to a technique. MAE UKEMI are front roll-falls, USHIRO UKEMI are back roll-falls. Ideally, one should be able to execute UKEMI from any position and in any direction. The development of proper ukemi skills is just as important as the development of throwing skills and is no less deserving of attention and effort. In the course of practicing UKEMI, one has the opportunity to monitor the way one is being moved so as to gain a clearer understanding of the principles of aikido techniques. Just as standard aikido techniques provide strategies for defending against physical attacks, so does UKEMI practice provide strategies for defending against falling (or even against the application of an aikido or aikido-like technique).
Undo Exercise.
Vakidzashi Short sword.
Yasumu Break, stop for a break.
Yomi The skill to anticipate one's intention only by the face expression.
Zanshin Lit. "remaining mind/heart." Even after an aikido technique has been completed, one should remain in a balanced and aware state. ZANSHIN thus connotes "following through" in a technique, as well as preservation of one's awareness so that one is prepared to respond to additional attacks.
Zen A school or division of Buddhism characterized by techniques designed to produce enlightenment. In particular, Zen emphasizes various sorts of meditative practices, which are supposed to lead the practitioner to a direct insight into the fundamental character of reality (see KU and MOKUSO).
Zengo undo Exercise in two directions.
20.Katana no nagasa